Periodontology is a specialized branch of dentistry that focuses on the treatment of the soft tissues (periodontal ligament and gingiva) and hard tissues (dental cementum and alveolar bone) that surround the teeth, ensuring their stability within the dental arch.
Periodontal disease, also known as periodontitis or gum disease, encompasses various forms of gingivitis and periodontitis.
The development of this disease begins with the accumulation of bacteria and plaque due to poor oral hygiene, leading to acute and chronic infections of the periodontal tissues.
Untreated inflammation of the superficial tissues (gingivitis) can progress to affect deeper tissues (periodontitis).
Additional factors that worsen this disease include smoking, untreated diabetes, stress, pregnancy, and genetics.
The initial signs of this disease occur when one or more components of the periodontium fail to function properly.
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